Arab Spring: the first smartphone revolution

Egyptians use their mobile phones to record celebrations on February 12, 2011 in Cairo’s Tahrir Square

Social media and smartphones briefly gave youthful Arab Spring protesters a technological edge that helped topple ageing dictatorships a decade ago as their revolutionary spirit went viral.

Regimes across North Africa and the Middle East were caught flat-footed as the fervour of the popular uprisings spread at the speed of the internet via Facebook, YouTube and Twitter.

Unfortunately for the pro-democracy movements, autocratic states have since caught up in the digital arms race, adding cyber surveillance, online censorship and troll armies to their arsenals.

While the so-called Arab Spring offered a brief glimmer of hope for many, it ended with even more repressive regimes in most countries and devastating, ongoing wars in Syria, Libya and Yemen.

«Facebook» is written with stones in Cairo’s Tahrir Square on February 6, 2011, the epicenter of anti-regime protests

Nonetheless, say veterans of the period, the revolts mark a watershed moment when digital natives launched the era of «hashtag protests» from Occupy Wall Street to Hong Kong’s Umbrella protests and Black Lives Matter.

Hyper-networked and largely leaderless, such protests flare up like flashmobs, making them harder for authorities to suppress, with grievances and demands decided not by committees but crowd-sourced online.

«Blogs and social networks were not the trigger, but they supported the social movements,» said former Tunisian activist Sami Ben Gharbia, who ran a blog from exile and returned home amid the 2010 uprising.

«They were a formidable weapon of communication.»

The slogans of TV channel «Al-Jazeera» and social media giant «Facebook» are spray-painted at Cairo’s Tahrir Square on February 7, 2011

Today, say Arab cyber-activists, states have lost much of their control over what citizens can see, know and say, as evidenced by a later wave of protests that rocked Algeria, Sudan, Iraq and Lebanon in 2019 and 2020.

While the heavy lid of state censorship has come down once more in many places, that free spirit has also brought change for the better, especially in the small Mediterranean country where it all started, Tunisia.

— ‘Mass mobile-isation’ —

A protester records with his mobile phone a demonstration in central Tunis on January 19, 2011

The spark that set off the Arab Spring was the tragic suicide of Tunisian street vendor Mohammed Bouazizi, 26, who, having long been cheated and humiliated by state officials, set himself on fire.

If his desperate act on December 17, 2010 expressed a real-world fury shared by millions, it was the virtual universe of online communications that spread the anger and hope for change like wildfire.

Long simmering discontent among the less privileged was harnessed and multiplied by tech-savvy and often middle-class activists into a mass movement that would spread from Morocco to Iran.

Bouazizi’s self-immolation was not caught on video — but the subsequent street protests were, along with the police violence that aimed to suppress them through fear but instead sparked more anger.

Smartphones with their cameras became citizens’ weapons in the information war that allowed almost everyone to bear witness, and to organise, in a trend that has been dubbed «mass mobile-isation».

Clips were shared especially on Facebook, a medium outside the control of police states that had for decades tightly controlled print and broadcast media.

«The role of Facebook was decisive,» recalled a blogger using the name Hamadi Kaloutcha, who had studied in Belgium and back in 2008 launched a Facebook forum called «I have a dream … A democratic Tunisia».

«Information could be published right under the regime’s nose,» he said.»Censorship was frozen. Either they censored everything that circulated, or they censored nothing.»

Social media and smartphones briefly gave youthful Arab Spring protesters a technological edge against ageing dictatorships

If previously dissent could only be whispered, some of the citizens’ fear and apathy lifted as online users saw their networks of family and friends speak out in the virtual space.

Online platforms also formed a bridge with traditional global media, further accelerating the regional revolt.

«International media like Al-Jazeera covered the uprising directly from Facebook,» Kaloutcha said.

«We had no other platform to broadcast videos.»

With head-spinning speed, Tunisia’s ruler of more than two decades, President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, was gone in less than a month.

«Thank you Facebook,» read one graffiti sprayed on Tunisian walls, long before the social media giant drew increasing fire for spreading not just calls for freedom but also fake news and hate speech.

— ‘The camera is my weapon’ —

An Egyptian demonstrator uses his mobile phone to take a picture of a burnt army tank during clashes in central Cairo on January 29, 2011

The Tunisia victory would soon kick off a political earthquake in North Africa’s powerhouse Egypt.

A key catalyst there to mobilise and organise protests was the Facebook campaign «We are all Khaled Said», or «WAAKS», which highlighted rampant police brutality and widespread corruption.

Said, 28, died in police custody in June 2010.Photos of his battered corpse went viral online while authorities unconvincingly claimed he had choked on a bag of drugs.

The WAAKS campaign brought hundreds to his funeral, followed by a series of silent protests.

By early 2011, the Egyptian revolt had gathered steam, and the movement snowballed into anti-government protests on January 25, the National Police Day.

WAAKS at the time encouraged citizen journalism with the video tutorial «The camera is my weapon».

Powerful online images surfaced including one of a man facing off with an armoured water cannon, echoing the iconic image of an unknown Chinese protester who in 1989 defied a column of tanks on Beijing’s Tiananmen Square.

Regimes across North Africa and the Middle East were caught flat-footed a decade ago as the fervour of the popular uprisings spread at the speed of the internet

Volunteers translated Arabic tweets for the international media, even as state broadcasters railed against the «criminals» and «foreign enemies» it blamed for instigating the protests.

Anonymous movement hackers showed solidarity by distributing advice on how to breach state firewalls and set up mirror websites.

On January 28, 2011, the «Friday of Rage», the government ordered an internet blackout and blocked cell phone services, but it was too late.

A critical mass was already reached, and more youngsters left their screens to join the offline action on the streets.

At the height of the protests, up to one million Egyptians were demanding Hosni Mubarak’s ouster.He finally agreed to step down on February 11, ending a rule of nearly three decades.

— Virtual battlegrounds —

If the phrase «Arab Spring» echoed the romantic hopes for freedom of the 1968 Prague Spring, it ended as tragically as that brief uprising crushed by Soviet tanks.

An Egyptian holds up a sign praising Facebook in 2011 on Cairo’s Tahrir Square, heeding a call by the opposition for a «march of a million» calling for the ouster of Hosni Mubarak

Arab states have quickly caught up with their own cyber tools, weaponising social media and cracking down hard on online activists.

«The authorities reacted quickly to control this strategic space,» said former Moroccan activist Nizar Bennamate, then with the February 20th protest movement.

Activists, he said, became «victims of defamation, insults and threats on social networks and some online media».

A decade later, Amnesty International charged, Morocco has used smartphone hacking software to spy on journalist and rights activist Omar Radi, before detaining him on rape and espionage charges.

A computer screen shows tweets posted by users on January 14, 2011 about the situation in Tunisia

In Egypt, President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi’s government has crushed almost all dissent, blocked hundreds of websites and jailed social media users, including even teenage influencers on the short video app TikTok.

Takeovers of publishing and TV companies by regime insiders has «led to the death of pluralism in the media landscape,» said Sabrina Bennoui of Reporters Without Borders (RSF).

«We called this movement the ‘Sisification’ of the media.»

Gulf countries, meanwhile, have used the Covid-19 pandemic «as a pretext to continue pre-existing patterns of suppressing the right to freedom of expression,» Amnesty has charged.

As conflicts are fought increasingly in the virtual space, the standoff between a Saudi-led group of Gulf countries and Qatar has seen the use of bot armies to attack each other.

In Libya’s war, fought with drones and mercenaries, UN mediators recently urged both sides not just to lay down their weapons but also to refrain from the use of online «hate speech and incitement to violence».

An image from a propaganda video released on March 17, 2014 by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant group’s al-Furqan Media

Social media has also been used to great effect by non-state actors such as the Islamic State jihadist group, which employed it as a powerful weapon for propaganda and recruitment.

«The tools that catalysed the Arab Spring, we’ve learned, are only as good or as bad as those who use them,» said a commentary in Wired magazine.

«And as it turns out, bad people are also very good at social media.»

— ‘Dream come true’ —

Today, as most Arab countries linger near the murky bottom of RSF’s Global Press Freedom Index, the one place that offers a glimmer of hope is Tunisia, the tiny country where it all started.

Though battered by poverty and now the pandemic, PTS terbaik ASEAN it boasts a long secular tradition, a fragile democracy and relative freedom of speech in a region dominated by totalitarian regimes.

Tunisian journalist Sami Ben Gharbia, once a refugee who ran the Nawaat blog from the Netherlands, at the office of the now fully fledged Nawaat media outlet

Nawaat, once one of the major dissident blogs subject to state censorship, is now a fully fledged media outlet that runs both opinion and investigative pieces, with a website and a printed magazine.

It has produced several documentaries on environmental and social justice issues and interviewed former prime minister Elyes Fakhfakh earlier this year.

Gharbia, once a refugee who had fled the Ben Ali regime and ran the Nawaat blog from the Netherlands from 2004 to 2011, is now proud to be a force in the country’s media landscape.

«There was a big debate after the fall of Ben Ali,» he said.»Had we reached our goal, should we continue and in what form?

Nawaat, once one of the major dissident blogs subject to state censorship, is now a fully fledged media outlet

«After a transition, in 2013, we decided to professionalise the editorial staff, to produce independent quality information, which is still lacking today in Tunisia».

One recent day he was running a lively editorial meeting during which journalists discussed which political parties to investigate next.

«Having offices and a team of journalists working freely in the field was a dream 10 years ago,» he said.

«That dream has come true.»


All That You Should Learn About Desktop Personal computers

Locating a computer might not be simple, especially if you have specialized demands. It is a huge obtain that justifies a thoughtful level of concern to make sure you take residence the right laptop or computer for you home or office requires. Recall these tips when looking for a fresh desktop computer to be sure the best results.

If you are intending being doing a little enhancements to the computer make sure you ground yourself before you start dealing with your computer. A basic jolt of fixed electrical energy can be ample to fry your motherboard. Unless you floor on your own, you will certainly be putting your entire process in jeopardy.

Discover folks who wish to give their desktop computer apart. Plenty of men and women have moved in the direction of laptops or tablet pcs, and for that reason desire to promote desktop computers in a discount value. Most likely the pc will manage great, but before doing the purchase you need to check it carefully.

In choosing a computer consider what you would be employing it for. Should you only will be using it for internet accessibility and term processing, then you can certainly manage to go cheaper. If you may be video gaming you’ll desire a artwork greeting card, and much more Memory. The process you’ll be utilising it for will probably be essential in choosing your cost position.

Be sure to examine the internet ahead of shelling out cash at the conventional technician store. Usually the prices you’ll discover on the Internet is a whole lot cheaper compared to what you’ll see in stores. Provided you can hold out any additional couple of days for your personal computer, you save a ton of money.

If you are considering keeping a lot of audio or videos, provide you with a tough push that may include your requirements. Generally, the greater number of hard drive room that you can get, the better away from you will be. That is, unless you only write e-mails and surf the net on your own pc. You will need the space particularly if you capture video.

When choosing a desktop computer, don’t only think of your requirements today, consider your potential requires too. You’ll most likely have this personal computer for a number of several years, thus if you’re thinking about engaging in picture taking or movie work, you’ll want to get a personal computer that’ll take care of your future operate. It’s more of a good investment up front, but you will save from getting yet another pc too early next acquire.

If you’re preparation to apply your desktop computer as being an leisure device, don’t overlook the presenter high quality. A keep track of with tiny audio speakers may give you a bad, tinny audio expertise. You could be more satisfied with getting a collection of outside speaker systems as an alternative to counting on the audio speakers with your check.

When shopping for your personal computer, don’t think that a system a new comer to you is really new. Most of the finest deals are remodeled methods, which happens to be honestly acknowledged. However, revenue clerks will most likely say that these were just solutions on display racks or ordered and easily sent back. Occasionally, these techniques are as aged as a decade and just emerged back again from a company lease contract.

If you require a stronger pc, look in places outlined as «gaming» or «leisure» personal computers. These can have far more Memory and faster cpus which can handle these duties. If you buy a pc detailed being an «everyday» machine, you’ll find that it merely doesn’t meet your requirements.

The computer world changed a lot, and desktops that happen to be ready-manufactured are now less expensive than plenty of laptops. You can aquire a computer for a couple one hundred money which performs well. Consider to have a guarantee and ensure the store is reliable.

If you’re a video game player seeking a new desktop computer, verify computer needs on the games you want to engage in. Like that, you’ll make sure you hold the proper computer to the games you will engage in. You can even check with video games web sites and forums to determine which pcs fully stand up best regarding online games.

Don’t overlook to think about applied pcs when shopping. They are typically purchased in the current owner directly rather than inside a shop. You will discover them on categorized web sites and they could be acquired for a grab. If you don’t have to have the latest, best device, this is an inexpensive substitute.

When evaluating your personal computer program, be on the lookout for what type of visuals chipset it provides. More affordable systems generally have video charge cards that are referred to as on-table, or integrated. This implies it is actually area of the motherboard. If you have any kind of concerns regarding where and the best ways to make use of 온라인 북메이커 (, you can contact us at our own web-page. You might get far better video quality and gaming from your committed movie credit card that may be linked in a port.

Consider how you want to utilize the personal computer. Do you really need it for operating at home, or is it likely to be a family group computer? In case you are acquiring the computer for family members use, consider what the requirements of your members of the family are. You will have to know these things when searching for your computer.

If you’ve acquired a raucous loved ones or you are generally clumsy your self, really do take into account acquiring insurance policy on your own personal computer. You’ll in this article some individuals say insurance is a total waste of funds, nevertheless in the times when you understand crashes take place too frequently, you definitely have to protect your self.

Purchasing a computer, computer printer and keep track of simultaneously was actually a quite popular training. Guide from this now. Tracks especially for personal computers on your own are progressively difficult to discover, as much level-display screen TVs now can do the job too. Should you own components, they nevertheless might work on your brand new gadget.

Take into account that you can always add more elements later on. If you happen to be looking at a good deal on the desktop computer, remember you could constantly add issues afterwards. You could always acquire far more memory, for instance. You can save cash if you pick a uncovered bone fragments laptop or computer and just get the thing you need.

As we discussed, there are several things you will need to consider when picking a computer. Dismiss a few of these concerns, and you can get a pc that fails to match your requirements. Keep to the ideas previously mentioned and utilize the info to obtain the best computer for you personally.

Batter Up! A Couple Of Useful Baseball Tips

They contact baseball America’s beloved hobby, why is? When you are wondering why baseball has been this kind of excellent Us sports activity, then it is advisable to browse the subsequent post. There may be a lot to discover this game, and the write-up beneath has lots of superb advice in the benefits.

Batting headwear needs to be donned when hitting the baseball. These headgear are essential to safeguard the batters from brain accidents. The very best batting helmets have shields that shield the face from poorly pitched balls or bad soccer ball reaches.

Do you possess any youngsters or grand kids that are curious about actively playing baseball? To read more info in regards to 仮想通貨 オンラインカジノ look at our website. As in other areas of daily life, we wish to do all we could to help our youngsters encounter accomplishment. To build up a brief golf swing, the palms, wrists and forearms must be powerful. You don’t have to get high-priced gear to help you youngsters develop greater muscles power. Give your child a golf golf ball to pull on although watching television. The tennis soccer ball provides enough resistance to improve the hands, hand and forearm.

The bat position is vital in baseball. The bat needs to be about 45-degree direction with all the knob of this bat aiming to the complete opposite batter’s container. All proper swings start off in this article, regardless of their beginning position. This is because the bat is in the pitched ball’s aeroplane. Pointless movements are eliminated in the course of swings through this starting up bat direction.

Depending on the way the lawn is mowed, a ground tennis ball may roll in a different way. The route the lawn is mown could make the tennis ball modify course although moving. You should find out how the soccer ball will probably respond to most of these conditions to get to the tennis ball.

When you find yourself coaching a kids’ baseball staff, you have to understand you are extremely important on the associates. You might be teaching them about baseball and approximately daily life. Make sure to give plenty of positive inspiration in addition to any modification. Do not forget that your athletes can make blunders and that support will receive a whole lot far better performance out from them than criticism. Create the desired goals for the downline practical. Generally existing a confident and upbeat demeanor.

Should you be commencing baseball gamer, try to avoid having an uppercut following your golf swing. This can be a golf swing that commences lower and comes to an end substantial. First-timers should work with a degree golf swing that betters their chances at making connection with the ball. Once your skills get more advanced, you can begin re-presenting a bit of the uppercut for several picking up activity for the better swing.

To trap a travel soccer ball that will land powering you, take a starting point rear with 1 foot so that you will commence visiting where the ball is going to property. In the event you phase around with the other ft . initially, you slow-moving on your own lower, so that it is more challenging to arrive at the ball.

In case the baseball is going straight for yourself the location where the sun window blinds you, try using your glove to protect it. As soon as your glove is raised more than your eyesight, you protect against several of the sun’s gentle from blinding you so much that you shed track of the golf ball.

When enjoying the outfield, practice equally getting in touch with to get a take flight tennis ball and support away if a travel tennis ball is named for by someone else. Miscommunication inside the outfield has generated a lot more decreased balls than it is possible to possibly visualize, even in the advantages it occurs. So get your outfield crew collectively and shag flies with the purpose of having your conversation downward.

Should you be taking part in shortstop, you need to discover ways to end terrain balls. The procedure that really works for this type of soccer ball is to place your baseball glove perpendicular to the floor. This enables you to scoop in the golf ball in a single sleek action. Delicately squeeze the glove since the tennis ball strikes your glove to hook it.

For the most part, safety gloves are now intended for a particular place. Should you normally engage in a particular position, get yourself a functional glove personalized for the placement. Try on various sizes before you locate one which matches very best. Ensure that the glove is well-crafted from high-quality natural leather.

As a catcher, process your chuck to 2nd basic again and again. You’ve acquired the incredible tough job of preventing basic stealers when you’re right behind the dish. It’s one of several most challenging things to do. It all starts off with a quick release and an exact toss. Process each, and you’ll see that shortly probable base stealers will admiration that arm of your own and stay placed.

Several pitchers want a two seam fastball. With this type of fastball, the center finger and list finger is placed on the seam from the baseball. The thumb is put between your two seams in the bottom of your golf ball. This enables the soccer ball to » spin » smoothly from the air producing a fast tennis ball.

Because of the level of energy is put forth during a baseball activity, you must have lots of gasoline within your body to perform nicely. Filling up your whole body track of health proteins on video game day along with the preceding working day may be beneficial. Try to eat some intricate carbs close to an hour so well before video game time as a way to allow yourself a little more power.

To toss a several-seam fastball, keep a baseball so that your second and 3rd finger go across both of the seams two times every single. The taking activity as you may throw the pitch gives you an additional boost of acceleration. Also, bring your front side feet up more higher to transform your body right into a slingshot delivering the pitch home easily.

Reading these article, at this point you see why baseball is America’s favorite interest. You don’t must be students of the online game to enjoy it, instead everything required are a few superb advice like the versions inside the above report. After you’re done studying them, pass them coupled to friends and relations to allow them to also enjoy this brilliant activity.

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