Egyptians use their mobile phones to record celebrations on February 12, 2011 in Cairo’s Tahrir Square
Social media and smartphones briefly gave youthful Arab Spring protesters a technological edge that helped topple ageing dictatorships a decade ago as their revolutionary spirit went viral.
Regimes across North Africa and the Middle East were caught flat-footed as the fervour of the popular uprisings spread at the speed of the internet via Facebook, YouTube and Twitter.
Unfortunately for the pro-democracy movements, autocratic states have since caught up in the digital arms race, adding cyber surveillance, online censorship and troll armies to their arsenals.
While the so-called Arab Spring offered a brief glimmer of hope for many, it ended with even more repressive regimes in most countries and devastating, ongoing wars in Syria, Libya and Yemen.
«Facebook» is written with stones in Cairo’s Tahrir Square on February 6, 2011, the epicenter of anti-regime protests
Nonetheless, say veterans of the period, the revolts mark a watershed moment when digital natives launched the era of «hashtag protests» from Occupy Wall Street to Hong Kong’s Umbrella protests and Black Lives Matter.
Hyper-networked and largely leaderless, such protests flare up like flashmobs, making them harder for authorities to suppress, with grievances and demands decided not by committees but crowd-sourced online.
«Blogs and social networks were not the trigger, but they supported the social movements,» said former Tunisian activist Sami Ben Gharbia, who ran a blog from exile and returned home amid the 2010 uprising.
«They were a formidable weapon of communication.»
The slogans of TV channel «Al-Jazeera» and social media giant «Facebook» are spray-painted at Cairo’s Tahrir Square on February 7, 2011
Today, say Arab cyber-activists, states have lost much of their control over what citizens can see, know and say, as evidenced by a later wave of protests that rocked Algeria, Sudan, Iraq and Lebanon in 2019 and 2020.
While the heavy lid of state censorship has come down once more in many places, that free spirit has also brought change for the better, especially in the small Mediterranean country where it all started, Tunisia.
— ‘Mass mobile-isation’ —
A protester records with his mobile phone a demonstration in central Tunis on January 19, 2011
The spark that set off the Arab Spring was the tragic suicide of Tunisian street vendor Mohammed Bouazizi, 26, who, having long been cheated and humiliated by state officials, set himself on fire.
If his desperate act on December 17, 2010 expressed a real-world fury shared by millions, it was the virtual universe of online communications that spread the anger and hope for change like wildfire.
Long simmering discontent among the less privileged was harnessed and multiplied by tech-savvy and often middle-class activists into a mass movement that would spread from Morocco to Iran.
Bouazizi’s self-immolation was not caught on video — but the subsequent street protests were, along with the police violence that aimed to suppress them through fear but instead sparked more anger.
Smartphones with their cameras became citizens’ weapons in the information war that allowed almost everyone to bear witness, and to organise, in a trend that has been dubbed «mass mobile-isation».
Clips were shared especially on Facebook, a medium outside the control of police states that had for decades tightly controlled print and broadcast media.
«The role of Facebook was decisive,» recalled a blogger using the name Hamadi Kaloutcha, who had studied in Belgium and back in 2008 launched a Facebook forum called «I have a dream … A democratic Tunisia».
«Information could be published right under the regime’s nose,» he said.»Censorship was frozen. Either they censored everything that circulated, or they censored nothing.»
Social media and smartphones briefly gave youthful Arab Spring protesters a technological edge against ageing dictatorships
If previously dissent could only be whispered, some of the citizens’ fear and apathy lifted as online users saw their networks of family and friends speak out in the virtual space.
Online platforms also formed a bridge with traditional global media, further accelerating the regional revolt.
«International media like Al-Jazeera covered the uprising directly from Facebook,» Kaloutcha said.
«We had no other platform to broadcast videos.»
With head-spinning speed, Tunisia’s ruler of more than two decades, President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, was gone in less than a month.
«Thank you Facebook,» read one graffiti sprayed on Tunisian walls, long before the social media giant drew increasing fire for spreading not just calls for freedom but also fake news and hate speech.
— ‘The camera is my weapon’ —
An Egyptian demonstrator uses his mobile phone to take a picture of a burnt army tank during clashes in central Cairo on January 29, 2011
The Tunisia victory would soon kick off a political earthquake in North Africa’s powerhouse Egypt.
A key catalyst there to mobilise and organise protests was the Facebook campaign «We are all Khaled Said», or «WAAKS», which highlighted rampant police brutality and widespread corruption.
Said, 28, died in police custody in June 2010.Photos of his battered corpse went viral online while authorities unconvincingly claimed he had choked on a bag of drugs.
The WAAKS campaign brought hundreds to his funeral, followed by a series of silent protests.
By early 2011, the Egyptian revolt had gathered steam, and the movement snowballed into anti-government protests on January 25, the National Police Day.
WAAKS at the time encouraged citizen journalism with the video tutorial «The camera is my weapon».
Powerful online images surfaced including one of a man facing off with an armoured water cannon, echoing the iconic image of an unknown Chinese protester who in 1989 defied a column of tanks on Beijing’s Tiananmen Square.
Regimes across North Africa and the Middle East were caught flat-footed a decade ago as the fervour of the popular uprisings spread at the speed of the internet
Volunteers translated Arabic tweets for the international media, even as state broadcasters railed against the «criminals» and «foreign enemies» it blamed for instigating the protests.
Anonymous movement hackers showed solidarity by distributing advice on how to breach state firewalls and set up mirror websites.
On January 28, 2011, the «Friday of Rage», the government ordered an internet blackout and blocked cell phone services, but it was too late.
A critical mass was already reached, and more youngsters left their screens to join the offline action on the streets.
At the height of the protests, up to one million Egyptians were demanding Hosni Mubarak’s ouster.He finally agreed to step down on February 11, ending a rule of nearly three decades.
— Virtual battlegrounds —
If the phrase «Arab Spring» echoed the romantic hopes for freedom of the 1968 Prague Spring, it ended as tragically as that brief uprising crushed by Soviet tanks.
An Egyptian holds up a sign praising Facebook in 2011 on Cairo’s Tahrir Square, heeding a call by the opposition for a «march of a million» calling for the ouster of Hosni Mubarak
Arab states have quickly caught up with their own cyber tools, weaponising social media and cracking down hard on online activists.
«The authorities reacted quickly to control this strategic space,» said former Moroccan activist Nizar Bennamate, then with the February 20th protest movement.
Activists, he said, became «victims of defamation, insults and threats on social networks and some online media».
A decade later, Amnesty International charged, Morocco has used smartphone hacking software to spy on journalist and rights activist Omar Radi, before detaining him on rape and espionage charges.
A computer screen shows tweets posted by users on January 14, 2011 about the situation in Tunisia
In Egypt, President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi’s government has crushed almost all dissent, blocked hundreds of websites and jailed social media users, including even teenage influencers on the short video app TikTok.
Takeovers of publishing and TV companies by regime insiders has «led to the death of pluralism in the media landscape,» said Sabrina Bennoui of Reporters Without Borders (RSF).
«We called this movement the ‘Sisification’ of the media.»
Gulf countries, meanwhile, have used the Covid-19 pandemic «as a pretext to continue pre-existing patterns of suppressing the right to freedom of expression,» Amnesty has charged.
As conflicts are fought increasingly in the virtual space, the standoff between a Saudi-led group of Gulf countries and Qatar has seen the use of bot armies to attack each other.
In Libya’s war, fought with drones and mercenaries, UN mediators recently urged both sides not just to lay down their weapons but also to refrain from the use of online «hate speech and incitement to violence».
An image from a propaganda video released on March 17, 2014 by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant group’s al-Furqan Media
Social media has also been used to great effect by non-state actors such as the Islamic State jihadist group, which employed it as a powerful weapon for propaganda and recruitment.
«The tools that catalysed the Arab Spring, we’ve learned, are only as good or as bad as those who use them,» said a commentary in Wired magazine.
«And as it turns out, bad people are also very good at social media.»
— ‘Dream come true’ —
Today, as most Arab countries linger near the murky bottom of RSF’s Global Press Freedom Index, the one place that offers a glimmer of hope is Tunisia, the tiny country where it all started.
Though battered by poverty and now the pandemic, PTS terbaik ASEAN it boasts a long secular tradition, a fragile democracy and relative freedom of speech in a region dominated by totalitarian regimes.
Tunisian journalist Sami Ben Gharbia, once a refugee who ran the Nawaat blog from the Netherlands, at the office of the now fully fledged Nawaat media outlet
Nawaat, once one of the major dissident blogs subject to state censorship, is now a fully fledged media outlet that runs both opinion and investigative pieces, with a website and a printed magazine.
It has produced several documentaries on environmental and social justice issues and interviewed former prime minister Elyes Fakhfakh earlier this year.
Gharbia, once a refugee who had fled the Ben Ali regime and ran the Nawaat blog from the Netherlands from 2004 to 2011, is now proud to be a force in the country’s media landscape.
«There was a big debate after the fall of Ben Ali,» he said.»Had we reached our goal, should we continue and in what form?
Nawaat, once one of the major dissident blogs subject to state censorship, is now a fully fledged media outlet
«After a transition, in 2013, we decided to professionalise the editorial staff, to produce independent quality information, which is still lacking today in Tunisia».
One recent day he was running a lively editorial meeting during which journalists discussed which political parties to investigate next.
«Having offices and a team of journalists working freely in the field was a dream 10 years ago,» he said.
«That dream has come true.»
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They contact baseball America’s beloved hobby, why is? When you are wondering why baseball has been this kind of excellent Us sports activity, then it is advisable to browse the subsequent post. There may be a lot to discover this game, and the write-up beneath has lots of superb advice in the benefits.
Batting headwear needs to be donned when hitting the baseball. These headgear are essential to safeguard the batters from brain accidents. The very best batting helmets have shields that shield the face from poorly pitched balls or bad soccer ball reaches.
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The bat position is vital in baseball. The bat needs to be about 45-degree direction with all the knob of this bat aiming to the complete opposite batter’s container. All proper swings start off in this article, regardless of their beginning position. This is because the bat is in the pitched ball’s aeroplane. Pointless movements are eliminated in the course of swings through this starting up bat direction.
Depending on the way the lawn is mowed, a ground tennis ball may roll in a different way. The route the lawn is mown could make the tennis ball modify course although moving. You should find out how the soccer ball will probably respond to most of these conditions to get to the tennis ball.
When you find yourself coaching a kids’ baseball staff, you have to understand you are extremely important on the associates. You might be teaching them about baseball and approximately daily life. Make sure to give plenty of positive inspiration in addition to any modification. Do not forget that your athletes can make blunders and that support will receive a whole lot far better performance out from them than criticism. Create the desired goals for the downline practical. Generally existing a confident and upbeat demeanor.
Should you be commencing baseball gamer, try to avoid having an uppercut following your golf swing. This can be a golf swing that commences lower and comes to an end substantial. First-timers should work with a degree golf swing that betters their chances at making connection with the ball. Once your skills get more advanced, you can begin re-presenting a bit of the uppercut for several picking up activity for the better swing.
To trap a travel soccer ball that will land powering you, take a starting point rear with 1 foot so that you will commence visiting where the ball is going to property. In the event you phase around with the other ft . initially, you slow-moving on your own lower, so that it is more challenging to arrive at the ball.
In case the baseball is going straight for yourself the location where the sun window blinds you, try using your glove to protect it. As soon as your glove is raised more than your eyesight, you protect against several of the sun’s gentle from blinding you so much that you shed track of the golf ball.
When enjoying the outfield, practice equally getting in touch with to get a take flight tennis ball and support away if a travel tennis ball is named for by someone else. Miscommunication inside the outfield has generated a lot more decreased balls than it is possible to possibly visualize, even in the advantages it occurs. So get your outfield crew collectively and shag flies with the purpose of having your conversation downward.
Should you be taking part in shortstop, you need to discover ways to end terrain balls. The procedure that really works for this type of soccer ball is to place your baseball glove perpendicular to the floor. This enables you to scoop in the golf ball in a single sleek action. Delicately squeeze the glove since the tennis ball strikes your glove to hook it.
For the most part, safety gloves are now intended for a particular place. Should you normally engage in a particular position, get yourself a functional glove personalized for the placement. Try on various sizes before you locate one which matches very best. Ensure that the glove is well-crafted from high-quality natural leather.
As a catcher, process your chuck to 2nd basic again and again. You’ve acquired the incredible tough job of preventing basic stealers when you’re right behind the dish. It’s one of several most challenging things to do. It all starts off with a quick release and an exact toss. Process each, and you’ll see that shortly probable base stealers will admiration that arm of your own and stay placed.
Several pitchers want a two seam fastball. With this type of fastball, the center finger and list finger is placed on the seam from the baseball. The thumb is put between your two seams in the bottom of your golf ball. This enables the soccer ball to » spin » smoothly from the air producing a fast tennis ball.
Because of the level of energy is put forth during a baseball activity, you must have lots of gasoline within your body to perform nicely. Filling up your whole body track of health proteins on video game day along with the preceding working day may be beneficial. Try to eat some intricate carbs close to an hour so well before video game time as a way to allow yourself a little more power.
To toss a several-seam fastball, keep a baseball so that your second and 3rd finger go across both of the seams two times every single. The taking activity as you may throw the pitch gives you an additional boost of acceleration. Also, bring your front side feet up more higher to transform your body right into a slingshot delivering the pitch home easily.
Reading these article, at this point you see why baseball is America’s favorite interest. You don’t must be students of the online game to enjoy it, instead everything required are a few superb advice like the versions inside the above report. After you’re done studying them, pass them coupled to friends and relations to allow them to also enjoy this brilliant activity.